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CPM and PERT.docx - 1 CPM and PERT(Program Evaluation and...
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No notes for slide. A convenient analytical and visual technique of PERT and CPM prove extremely valuable in assisting the managers in managing the projects. The technique was developed and used in conjunction with the planning and designing of the Polaris missile project.
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CPM has single time estimate and PERT has three time estimates for activities and uses probability theory to find the chance of reaching the scheduled time. Planning: Planning involves setting the objectives of the project. Identifying various activities to be performed and determining the requirement of resources such as men, materials, machines, etc. The cost and time for all the activities are estimated, and a network diagram is developed showing sequential interrelationships predecessor and successor between various activities during the planning stage.
Scheduling: Based on the time estimates, the start and finish times for each activity are worked out by applying forward and backward pass techniques, critical path is identified, along with the slack and float for the non-critical paths. Controlling: Controlling refers to analyzing and evaluating the actual progress against the plan. Reallocation of resources, crashing and review of projects with periodical reports are carried out. Activities, and ii. Events Activity: An activity represents an action and consumption of resources time, money, energy required to complete a portion of a project.
Activity is represented by an arrow, Figure 8. Event: An event or node will always occur at the beginning and end of an activity. The event has no resources and is represented by a circle. The ith event and jth event are the tail event and head event respectively, Figure 8. Describing the Project. Diagramming the Network.
PERT chart (Program Evaluation Review Technique)
Estimating time of completion. Monitoring Project Progress. Guidelines for network diagram 1. Before an activity can begin, its preceding activities must be completed. Arrows indicate logical precedence. Flow of the diagram is from left to right. Arrows should not intersect.
Dangling should be avoided. It is a zero time activity and consumes no resources. Dummy Activity is used in two situations: 1. When two or more activities start and end at the same nodes 1 3 2 The origin and development was summarized as follows:. PERT originated in with the Polaris missile design and construction scheduling. Since that time, it has been used extensively not only by the aerospace industry but also in many situations where management desires to achieve an objective or complete a task within a scheduled time and cost expenditure; it came into popularity when the algorithm for calculating a maximum value path was conceived.
PERT and CPM may be calculated manually or with a computer, but usually they require major computer support for detailed projects. A number of colleges and universities now offer instructional courses in both. In a PERT diagram, the main building block is the event , with connections to its known predecessor events and successor events. The first step to scheduling the project is to determine the tasks that the project requires and the order in which they must be completed.
The PERT Technique
The order may be easy to record for some tasks e. When building a house, the land must be graded before the foundation can be laid while difficult for others there are two areas that need to be graded, but there are only enough bulldozers to do one.
Additionally, the time estimates usually reflect the normal, non-rushed time. Many times, the time required to execute the task can be reduced for an additional cost or a reduction in the quality. In the following example there are seven tasks, labeled A through G. Some tasks can be done concurrently A and B while others cannot be done until their predecessor task is complete C cannot begin until A is complete.
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Additionally, each task has three time estimates: the optimistic time estimate o , the most likely or normal time estimate m , and the pessimistic time estimate p. Once this step is complete, one can draw a Gantt chart or a network diagram. A network diagram can be created by hand or by using diagram software. Activity on node diagrams are generally easier to create and interpret. To create an AON diagram, it is recommended but not required to start with a node named start.
This "activity" has a duration of zero 0. Then you draw each activity that does not have a predecessor activity a and b in this example and connect them with an arrow from start to each node. Next, since both c and d list a as a predecessor activity, their nodes are drawn with arrows coming from a. Activity e is listed with b and c as predecessor activities, so node e is drawn with arrows coming from both b and c , signifying that e cannot begin until both b and c have been completed.
Activity f has d as a predecessor activity, so an arrow is drawn connecting the activities. Likewise, an arrow is drawn from e to g. Since there are no activities that come after f or g , it is recommended but again not required to connect them to a node labeled finish.
The Significance of PERT in Project Management | Nutcache
By itself, the network diagram pictured above does not give much more information than a Gantt chart; however, it can be expanded to display more information. The most common information shown is:. In order to determine this information it is assumed that the activities and normal duration times are given.
The first step is to determine the ES and EF. The ES is defined as the maximum EF of all predecessor activities, unless the activity in question is the first activity, for which the ES is zero 0. Barring any unforeseen events , the project should take Consequently; any discussion about Critical Path Analysis need to cover both the PERT and the CPM method, and for project managers, it is therefore vital to learn about both methodologies to enable educated decisions of which method is most suitable for the projects they work with.
While the CPM technique is a deterministic tool which allows planners control of cost as well as time the method is aimed to be used in projects with predictable activities and tasks, thus, as noted by Stelth and Roy [, p. PERT, on the other hand, is a probabilistic tool aimed at projects with unpredictable tasks and utilizes three time estimates compared to one in CPM to control activities and determine time completion. Your email address will not be published. Posted On 22nd February References Emelda, M. Esposito, E. Haidar, A.