Throughout the baroque period , it was usual to see paintings that featured wings. For creating the illusion of the reduction of these, the artists declined the length of the lines, in order to give the impression of extension in the space and for it to contribute to the sensation of movement.
What Makes Art ‘Baroque’?
The works follow a certain S-like shape in the composition. The lines also pass through the diffusion of the baroque art with curvy figures ad horizontal capes. Plenty of artists that used the baroque style knew the concept of time and used it form transmitting the force of nature and also how time was part of the process of life.
The figure of an old man was included in a big amount of works for representing time itself and express that time comes for everybody. The positioning of the people in each painting gives the sensation that time advances and retreats. For accomplishing its scandalous part, the baroque art, stimulated by Catholic religion, tended to be a piece of public art itself in a big scale, like monumental murals and fresh painting in huge rooftops and vaults of palaces and churches.
It has been previously mentioned how the baroque art was highly influenced by religion and church; the paintings are the ones to especially exemplify crucial elements of the catholic doctrine, whether it be directly in biblical pieces, or indirectly in mythological or allegoric compositions. As well, new techniques of Tenebrism and clear-obscure were advanced for refining the atmosphere, accompanying the soft and wide brush, usually resulting in a broad filling.
The baroque sculpture was generally of a higher size than the real, and it was marked by a similar sense of dynamic movement, along with an active use of the space.
- The Baroque style.
- Studies in Baroque Art (HMSBA).
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The baroque architecture was intended for creating exhibition and impression, that for, the conventional lines of the Renaissance were replaced by fluid curves, while the domes and roofs were expanded, and the insides were carefully build in order to construct remarkable effects of light and shadow. It was an emotional style that, whenever the chance was available, detonated the theatric ability of the urban scenery as in The Square of Saint Pete in Rome, which conducts to the Basilica of Saint Pete. Its designer, Bernini, was one of the best baroque architects, he enclosed the square with columns for communicating to the visitants the impression that they were being hugged by the arms of the Catholic Church.
There are at least three different lines of the Baroque, in the following way:.
An overdramatic, ceremonial style; prodigal, almost exaggerated, ordered by the Catholic Counter Reformation and the courts of the absolute monarchies of Europe. Through the baroque period, the Christian art, tracked by The Vatican, was used to worship its own divine massiveness and, in the process, reinforce its political position. A new style of naturalist roots or metaphorical arrangement. See: Realistic Dutch artists. As you can see, even though most part of the baroque art within the architecture, painting and sculpture produced during the 17 th century is known as baroque, it is by no means a massive style.
This new technique required to be more animated, expressive and lightened with a bigger realism. The original push came from the arrival of Annibale Carracci and Carravaggio to Rome during the decade of the Their attendance sparkled up a new interest in the realism, as well as in the old forms, both alleged and progressed by Alessandro Algardi in sculpture and Bernini in sculpture and architecture.
Peter Paul Rubens, who stayed in Rome until , was the only great catholic painter in the baroque language. Although Rembrandt and other Dutch artists were influenced by both, Carravaggio and Bernini, France had their own, more irreverent relationship with the baroque. Spain and Portugal adopted it with greater enthusiasm, just like the catholic areas of Germany, Austria, Hungary, and the Spanish Netherlands.
The Education of the Princess by Peter Paul Rubens
The culmination of the movement was the High baroque , while the awe over the prominence of the movement was marked by the phenomenal quadrature known as Apotheosis of Saint Ignacio , S. Ignazio, Roma , by the illusionist roof painter Andrea Pozzo , certainly one of the best baroque painters of the 17 th century.
Italy was the cradle of Baroque. As it grew and spread, the figures in paintings became looser, more flowing, more dynamic; compositions were alive with energy, causing the eye to move in circles rather than in calm straight lines. Viewers grew goggle-eyed with well-fed angels in fluttering garments soaring heavenward, plump cherubs batting their wings, saints fainting in the ecstasy of their devotion, mythological figures assaulting, triumphing, kidnapping, battling - everything in movement.
Artists were driven to surprise and to move those beholding their paintings, and multiplied scenes of martyrdom and visions of death.
Baroque Art and Architecture
There was most definitely a tendency to over-dramatize things, inherited from the Caravaggisti. Since artists were following instructions issued by the Council of Trente to keep it clean for the Church, in Baroque art figures are rarely completely nude; rather, they were clad in rippling drapery.
Notable exceptions to this rule were Jordaens and Rubens, Rubens especially loving to exalt the female figure by contrasting it with wispy fabrics, and the male figure set off with gleaming metal. Unlike Classical paintings, where the figures stand out almost as if cut from paper, in Baroque art it is as if everything were of a single piece. Shapes interlock and swirl into each other, so much so that it is sometimes difficult to tell, as in the above painting by Rubens, where the horse ends and the assailant begins.
Characteristics of Protestant & Catholic Baroque Art | The Classroom
Please note in the listing below certain artists have not been assigned a number; that is because they have already been listed with numbers as followers of Caravaggio ; Baroque art and Caravaggism overlap. The Flemish Pierre Paul Rubens is one of the best-known Baroque painters; his impact on 17th century imagery was significant, and served to make Antwerp a major center for Counter Reformation art, together with Jordaens and Van Dyck.
Frans Hals , considered one of art history's most brilliant portrait painters, was the first major artist of the Dutch Golden Age. Frenchman Simon Vouet is important for having been the artist who introduced the Italian Baroque to France; he studied Caravaggio 's work while in Rome. Forgotten for centuries, it is only in recent years interest in his work has been justifiably revived.
Flemish Jacob Jordaens , a portrait painter, was the second artist, with Rubens and Van Dyck, to have created the prestige of the Antwerp school. Pietro da Cortona was the most important Italian Baroque painter of his time, being best known for his ceiling frescoes and other decorative painting work.
Francisco de Zurbaran , also known as the "Spanish Caravaggio", painted primarily religious art left, probably self-portrait.